Euthanasia: practicing assistance to death in Europe?
The Netherlands is the first country to legalize euthanasia, ten years ago
Several European countries have adopted legislation authorizing certain forms of assistance in dying, the Netherlands being the first in the world to legalize euthanasia, ten years ago.
COUNTRIES WITH EUTHANASIA LEGALIZED
The NETHERLANDS, since 1 April 2002, the direct active euthanasia (administration of a drug causing death) is permitted when the patient requests it in full possession of his faculties and undergoes suffering "unbearable and unending" due to illness diagnosed by a physician as incurable. The opinion of a second physician is required.
BELGIUM follows in September 2002, partially legalize "assisted suicide". The incurable patient must be an adult, "capable and aware," so his claim for "willful, deliberate and repeated" and be free of any constraint.
LUXEMBOURG, text legalizing euthanasia under certain conditions was promulgated in March 2009. This device, prohibited for minors, for patients medical situation "hopeless."
TOLERANT OR COUNTRY ALLOW SOME FORM OF AID TO DEATH
SWITZERLAND, indirect active euthanasia (give substance whose side effects can reduce the lifespan) and passive euthanasia (interruption of medical devices for life support) are allowed and assisted suicide (the person takes itself lethal dose).
FRANCE, Leonetti Act of 2005 introduced a right to "let die", which promotes palliative care. It allows administration by doctors anti-pain to relieve suffering, with "secondary effect of shortening the life" of a patient "advanced or terminal phase of severe and incurable."
SWEDEN legalized passive euthanasia in 2010.
In Great Britain, the interruption of care in some cases has been allowed since 2002. Since February 2010, makes it less likely justice proceedings against a person helping a loved one to suicide by compassion, provided that the latter has clearly expressed intent.
GERMANY, passive euthanasia is tolerated if the patient has requested. The situation is similar in AUSTRIA.
DENMARK since 1992 provides that every citizen may declare in writing his refusal of all aggressive therapy, statements stored in a central register.
In NORWAY, passive euthanasia is permitted at the request of the patient at the end of life of a loved one if it is unconscious.
HUNGARY CZECH REPUBLIC and the terminally ill may refuse treatment.
SPAIN, patients have the right to refuse treatment.
PORTUGAL, active or passive euthanasia is condemned but the Ethics Board acknowledges the cessation of treatment in some cases desperate.
COUNTRY OR EUTHANASIA IS STRICTLY PROHIBITED AND DOES NOT PROVIDE ASSISTANCE TO DEATH
ITALY, active euthanasia is equated with murder. Even if express consent of the patient, the Penal Code provides for a prison sentence of 6-15 years. Assisted suicide is also a criminal offense.
Euthanasia is prohibited in Greece, as in ROMANIA, where it is punishable by up to seven years in prison.
BOSNIA, CROATIA SERBIA and euthanasia is punishable as a homicide.
POLAND, euthanasia is punishable by three months to five years in prison, but "in exceptional cases" the court may reduce the penalty or waive inflict.
IRELAND, any form of assistance to the death or suicide is illegal and punishable by 14 years in prison.